Photographs of José Augusto da Cunha Moraes (1855-1933, in several Dutch museum collections, provide visual information about a Dutch trading firm with settlements along the coastline of Angola and Congo, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Kerdijk & Pincoffs, and its successor ‘Afrikaansche Handelsvereeniging’ (African Trade Association) would come to dominate trade in a region that struggled with the troubled transition from the slave trade to forms of indentured labour.
In 1849 Henry Kerdijk and Lodewijk Pincoffs founded a firm that traded in indigo and madder. Located in the port Rotterdam, shipping was another branch of the company, which gained in importance following the stagnation of the dye trade in the 1850s. 1 In 1857 Kerdijk & Pincoffs bought the British trading company Horsfall & Co. in the village Ambriz, northern Angola.
Together with the firms Tobin & Co. and Hatton & Cookson, Horsfall was one of the three firms from Liverpool in Ambriz. Historians assume these company premises functioned as barracoons for enslaved Africans up to 1807 – when the United Kingdom prohibited the transatlantic slave trade. 2 After 1807 the nature of their business changed to so-called ‘legitimate commerce’ or ‘legitimate trade’: European manufactures, predominantly cotton pieces, weapons and spirits, were traded against African raw materials, notably palm oil, gum copal and ivory. 3
In 1836 Portugal outlawed the transatlantic slave trade. Nevertheless, the number of illegal shipments of African captives sharply increased between 1830-1865. Whereas Luanda had been the most important port of embarcation in Central Africa during the slave trade, Portuguese-Brazilian merchants and slave smugglers from Spain and Cuba relocated further north to the port Ambriz.4 Slave trading firms from Rio de Janeiro organized shipments of enslaved Africans to Brazil, when these were abolished in 1850 they concentrated on Cuba.5
The illegal slave trade and the legitimate trading companies were connected. In theory, the trading companies strictly limited their activities to lawful barter trade. In reality, the clientele of Cuban and Brazilian middlemen provided the trading companies with cash payments. These slave smugglers bartered the purchased European goods for enslaved men, women and children from the African interior. 6 In the first year in Angola, Kerdijk & Pincoffs started trade with Portuguese slave dealers in Ponta da Lenha. 7
Advertisements found in the database Delpher show the first shipment of Kerdijk & Pincoffs arrived in May 1858 in Rotterdam from Luanda, the administrative center of the Portuguese.8 Within a year of opening a factory in Ambriz, Kerdijk & Pincoffs followed British traders to nearby Kisembo, in order to avoid the high Portuguese custom dues in Ambriz.9
In 1860 Kerdijk & Pincoffs opened a factory in Banana, along the Loango coast of Congo. The factory was adjacent to the trading company of Victor and Louis Régis, from Marseille. In the early 1830s, Régis began trading in Senegal, and expanded southwards to Sierra Leone and Angola. In 1841 the French state granted the company permission to open a trading post in Dahomey at Whyda, in the ruins of a fort that had functioned as a depot for enslaved Africans. 10
Régis became pivotal in a scheme of the French government to procure human labour for the colonies in the Caribbean. In 1831 France ended the slave trade and signed a convention with the British against human trafficking. This convention expired in 1856, which opened the way for France to contract Régis to recruit and transport African labourers for Guadeloupe and Martinique. 11
Between 1857-1863 Régis purchased enslaved people from African authorities, declared them free and signed them to indentured labour contracts. The French ‘redeemed’ enslaved Africans mostly in Boma, one of the former centers of the Atlantic slave trade, but housed the so-called ‘free emigrants’ (émigrés libres) in newly built factories in Banana and Loango. In each factory up to fourteen hundred people could be housed.12 The French considered the redemptions as ‘an act of humanity’, yet the mortality on the early voyages was high. At the end of the scheme, Regís had carried around seventeen thousand people to the Caribbean colonies, their properties in Banana were sold to neighbouring Kerdijk & Pincoffs. 13
With the settlement in Banana as the centre of the commercial activities, Kerdijk & Pincoffs expanded further in the Angolan region Cabinda. In 1868 Kerdijk & Pincofss became a limited company under the name of Afrikaansche Handelsvereeniging (African Trading Association – AHV). By 1871 the company had opened thirty-three factories in Angola and Congo, in 1877 this had risen to forty-four. 14 In 1879, after a financial scandal, the company continued as ‘Nieuwe Afrikaansche Handels Vennootschap’ and traded in Africa until 1982.
Further reading & listening
- Roquinaldo Ferreira, ‘Writing the history of abolitionism in the Portuguese South Atlantic’, Brown Univerity (March 20, 2014)
- John Harris, Voyage of the Echo: the trials of an illegal trans-Atlantic slave ship, Lowcountry Digital History Initatieve, online exhibition: http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/voyage-of-the-echo-the-trials
- Niek Joosse, Afrikaanse Droom. De handel van Henry P. Kerdijk en Lodewijk Pincoffs in Afrika, 1857-1879. (Master Thesis Geschiedenis, Erasmus Universteit Rotterdam 2016) https://thesis.eur.nl/pub/34933.
- Kanishk Tharoor, Museum of Lost Objects: the fire that scorched Brazil’s history (BBC, September 1, 2019) Part 1, Thrones and chains, 06:10 – 28:00 min. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p07m0kzc
- H.L. Wesseling, ‘The Netherlands and the partition of Africa’, The Journal of African history 22/4 (1981) 495-509, 496.
- R.T. Anstey, ‘British trade and policy in West Central Africa between 1916 and the early 1880s’, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 3/1 (1957) 47-71, 50.
- Anstey, ‘British trade and policy in West Central Africa’, 51.
- Jelmer Vos, ‘ “Without the slave trade, no recruitment”, From slave trading to “migrant recruitment” in the Lower Congo, 1830-90’ in: Benjamin N. Lawrance & Richard L. Roberts (eds.) Trafficking in slavery’s wake. Law and the experience of women and children in Africa (Ohio 2012) 45- 64, 47.
- Roquinaldo Ferreira, ‘The conquest of Ambriz: Colonial expansion and imperial competition in Central Africa’, Mulemba. Revista Angolana de ciencias sociais 5/9 (2015) 221-242. https://doi.org/10.4000/mulemba.439
- Anstey, ‘British trade and policy in West Central Africa’, 51.
- I did not look into primary sources to find out whether this was a substantial part of the trade until the mid 1860s, when the illegal slave trade was effectively supressed. Diary of Lodewijk Kerdijk, employee of the firm, cited in: Niek Joosse, Afrikaanse Droom. De handel van Henry P. Kerdijk en Lodewijk Pincoffs in Afrika, 1857-1879 (Master Thesis Geschiedenis, Erasmus Universteit Rotterdam 2016) 44.
- Algemeen Handelsblad, Scheepstijdingen – Cargolijsten (04-05-1858) https://resolver.kb.nl/resolve?urn=ddd:010087040:mpeg21:a0041
- Joosse, Afrikaanse Droom, 24.
- Xavier Daumalin, ‘Commercial presence, colonial penetration: Marseille traders in west Africa in the nineteenth century’, in: Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau (ed.) From slave trade to empire: European colonisation of Black Africa 1780s-1880s (New York 2004) 209-230, 211 and 213.
- David Northrup, ‘Freedom and indentured labor in the French Caribbean 1848-1900’in: David Eltis( ed.) Coerced and free migration: global perspectives (Stanford 2002) 204-228, 209.
- Vos, “Without the slave trade, no recruitment”, 48.
- Between 1957-1863 17, 262 people embarked on the vessels of Regís, 15,845 arrived at their destination. Vos, “Without the slave trade, no recruitment”, 57.
- Wesseling, ‘The Netherlands and the partition of Africa, 496.